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Volume 24, Issue 1, 2019
Survey for anti larval activity of silver nanoparticles against Ectomyelois ceratoniae
Mohammad Mahdi Jaefari, Ali Makhdoumi, Javad Karimi, Mansour Mashreghi
 
DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.ASR.2019.24.1.14
Published: March 2019
Pages: 1-4
[ Abstract ]
Insect pests cause to lose agricultural products in every year. Limitations in chemical toxins application to control of pests, result that identification of other control approaches are important. In the current study larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (size of 20 nm) against important agricultural pests Ectomyelois ceratoniae investigated. A total of four concentrations of nanoparticles including 100, 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm were added to the food diets of healthy larva and effects on their life were studied for one week. Silver and nitrate salts and water were used as control ingredients. The most lethal effects of silver nanoparticles were observed equally in 2000-4000 ppm concentration as 10 % mortality on larva.
Dithionite and oxalate extractable iron and aluminium oxides amount in soils of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Popoola Ayodele Joshua, Ewulo Babatunde Sunday, AdekiyaAruna Olasekan, Tomori Wasiu B, AdeyemoAdebayo Jonathan, O Morohunfolu Oladapo
 
DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.ASR.2019.24.1.514
Published: March 2019
Pages: 5-14
[ Abstract ]
The nature and content of sesquioxides has become a good tool in making predictions of the pedogenic processes and physicochemical properties of the soils. The study was aimed at investigating the forms, content and distribution of iron and aluminium oxides along the horizons. Ten profile pits were dug at the study site. Soil samples were collected from pedogenic horizons and analyzed for dithionite (d) and oxalate (o) Fe and Al oxides. Also, Fed. Ald, Feo and Alo were correlated with selected soil properties. The soils were generally low in sesquioxides and vary with depth with sub soils higher than top soils in all the pedons. The soils had higher value of Fed than other sesquioxides (Feo, Ald and Alo) indicating that these soils exist in crystalline forms. However, their distribution is independent of clay migration as evidenced by the non-significant correlation (p≤0.01) between Fed and clay (r = 0.201). All forms of Al in the soils were low especially the oxalate extractable form compared to the dithionite extractable forms. Active Fe (Feo /Fed), Fed/clay as well as silt/clay ratios indicated the soils were moderately weathered, poorly drained and young with low degree of weathering suggesting that the soils may still have some weatherable minerals with some of the nutrients still embedded in the parent materials. The soils could sustain intensive agriculture or crop cultivation due to its youthfulness but require liming and organic matter to reduce nutrient sorption and adaptable to poor drainage condition.
Preliminary Botanical Assessment of Production Challenges of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Okogbaa J.I., Akomolafe G.F., Terna T.P., Kwon-Ndung E.H. and Amaobi H.
 
DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.ASR.2019.24.1521
Published: March 2019
Pages: 15-21
[ Abstract ]
The aim of this study was to investigate the production and challenges of cashew farming in Lafia, Nigeria. The study area was divided into five zones. Fifty semi-structured questionnaires were administered to the farmers. The results showed that only males are engaged in cashew farming and slightly above 95% are married and just about 44% are aged between 21-40 years. Over 95% of farmers disclose that cashew production is seasonal; slightly above 73% disclose that diseases and pests are major challenges in cashew cultivation. Over 64% are of the opinion that these diseases and pests are responsible for yield reduction. Slightly above 52% disclose that yellow cashew is the most tasty and best for consumption. 52% of the farmers agree that 2017 is their best year of harvest because they were more involved in the management. 44% of farmers disclose that they do not apply chemicals and cultural practice in controlling diseases and pests, however majority agree that chemicals are useful in weed control. There was no agreement about the flowering and fruiting periods of cashew as 57% believe that cashew trees flower once, during the dry season and 65% disclosed that flowering occurs between January and March each year.
Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Crop Farmers’ Productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria
Ogunniyi, L.T, Fanifosi, G.E, Ajao, O.A, Dlamini, D.V
 
DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.ASR.2019.24.1.2227
Published: March 2019
Pages: 22-27
[ Abstract ]
Agricultural extension services play an important role in development of agriculture and contribute to improving the welfare of farmers and other people living in rural areas. This study examines the impact of agricultural extension services on crop farmers’ productivity in Oyo state Nigeria. The study employed a multistage sampling technique to select the respondents who are thereby interviewed. The finding showed that the nearest neighbor matching algorithm results for all the extension services have impact on crop productivity in the study area. They also have lower value when compared with results obtained with radius matching estimator, and they were found significant except the case of training programme, where the ATT value for the nearest neighbor matching was higher than the radius matching. In addition to this, the balancing test revealed that there is no significant difference between the socioeconomic characteristics of both treatment and control respondents except in some variables with respect to each programme.
Simulation of wind farm Using FACTS device for compensating the Reactive Power
Amir Hossein Foomani
 
DOI: 10.15192/PSCP.ASR.2019.24.1.2837
Published: March 2019
Pages: 28-37
[ Abstract ]
Generally, in a distribution system, an over-current relay with a breaker is used at the beginning of the main feeder. The coordination of the main protective equipment and the backup equipment is such that in the event of failure to timely act on the main element, the backup element, with a specified time interval, separates the error area from other parts of the network. Therefore, in distribution networks, each protective device must be compatible with its backup equipment. In the design of new power systems, it tends to be as close as possible to the consumers. Hence, to make the resources closer to the consumers, the discussion of resources and distributed generation systems should be discussed. Distributed generation is a good option for correcting the voltage profiles, reducing the losses, reducing the line capacity, reducing the cost of electrical energy, improving power quality, reducing environmental pollution and helping to improve network protection and in the future the best way to feed some consumers. In this paper, a differential relay on the line is put in place that will command the power switch and cut the network when the system error occurs.
A comparative study on the impact of detergent (LAS) on selected enzymatic catalysts in the organs of Clarias gariepinus juveniles and adults.
Uedeme-Naa B, George A.D.I
 
Published: June 2019
Pages: 38-49
[ Abstract ]
Abstract: On exposure of selected enzymes in the organs (gill and kidney) of a population of C. gariepinus juveniles and adults to detergent, it was observed that Acid phosphatase (ACP) activities in the gill of adult fish was respectively higher than that of juvenile by 20.00, 15.20, 38.00, 88.00 and 121.20% at 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00 and 50.00mg/l; Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the gill of juvenile fish ranked the same with adult at 10.00mg/l and higher by 40.97, 22.96, 40.59 and 40.36% respectively at 20.00,30.00,40.00 and 50.00mg/l; Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the gill of juvenile fish was higher than that of adult by 17.31 and 3.21% at 10.00 and 20.00mg/l and lower by 5.77, 26.28 and 39.10% at 30.00, 40.00 and 50.00mg/l; Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in juvenile fish was observed to be 80.82, 94.82, 47.77,124.99 and 78.03% higher than that of adult fish at 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00 and 50.00mg/l when compared with control. In the kidney, it was noticed that ACP activities in adult fish was 11.18 and 33.22% higher than that of juvenile at 10.00 and 40.00mg/l while at 20.00, 30.00 and 50.00mg/l, that of juvenile was 32.24, 42.24 and 8.55% higher than that of adult; ALP activities in juvenile and adult fish were all below control except at 10.00 and 20.00mg/l when compared to control. In adult fish, ALT activities in the kidney was 97.50, 152.50, 260.00,300.00 and 457.00% higher than that of juvenile at 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00 and 50.00mg/l when compared to control. AST activities in the kidneys of both life stages were below control.


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